Petiole Analysis Protocol

Plant tissue Sampling guide for different fruits

FRUIT-MANGO

Part required for analysis-Leaves and petiole should be taken for sample Age -4 to 7 month old leaves should be taken from middle of the shoot. Time- Leaf samples must be taken when the plant is in the dormant statei.e not flushing or flowering Postion- The leaves must come from te end of the branches, the fourth and fifth leaf from the terminal bud and must be fully expanded i.e green not red or pink.

OPTIMUM NORMS

NUTREINT UNIT LIMITS
N % 1- 1.50
P % 0.08-0.25
K % 0.40-0.90
Ca % 2.0-5.00
Mg % 0.20-0.50
S % 0.1-0.23
Cu ppm 7-50
Zn ppm 20-200
Mn ppm 50-250
Fe ppm 50-250
B ppm 50-100

Reference: Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, water and Fertilisers-Edited By HLS Tandon, FDCO, New Delhi

FRUIT- BANANA

Leaf samples should be taken from the 7th petiole and from the 3rd lamina. The third leaf from the top of the pseudostem of recently flowering (shot) plants is usually sampled for analysis Recommended critical nutrient levels using the third leaf as sample leaf. Time-The samples should be taken either just before flowering or following floral emergence and when all female hands are visible. The laminar structure of leaf 3 is sampled by removing a strip of tissue 10 cm wide, on both sides of the central vein, and discarding everything but the tissue that extends from the central vein to the center of the lamina.

OPTIMUM NORMS

NUTREINT UNIT LIMITS
N % 2.50-3.00
P % 0.18-0.40
K % 2.30-4.00
Ca % 0.70-1.4
Mg % 0.25-0.40
S % 0.26-0.5
Cu ppm 6-30
Zn ppm 13-50
Mn ppm 200-2000
Fe ppm 100-300
B ppm 11

Reference: Methods of Analysis of Soils , Plants, water and Fertilisers-Edited By HLS Tandon, FDCO, New Delhi

FRUIT- PAPAYA

Sample the petiole of the youngest fully-expanded mature leaf beneath the most recently opened flower during November. It is important to note that the sample does not include the leaf.

Select approximately 10 to 20 healthy plants by walking diagonally through the plantation. The plants should be homogeneous in appearance and representative of the plantation. Selected plants should be marked so that samples can be taken from the same sites every year.

Petiole samples should be collected in the morning after the dew has dried off.Samples should not be taken if plants are under stress as a result of drought,disease or high temperatures. After heavy rainfall, wait at least 2 weeks before taking samples.

OPTIMUM NORMS

NUTREINT UNIT LIMITS
N % 1.01-2.5
P % 0.22-0.40
K % 3.30-5.5
Ca % 1.00-3.00
Mg % 0.40-1.2
S % 0.26-0.5
Cu ppm 4-10
Zn ppm 14-40
Mn ppm 20-150
Fe ppm 25-100
B ppm 20-30

Reference: Methods of Analysis of Soils , Plants, water and Fertilisers-Edited By HLS Tandon, FDCO, New Delhi

FRUIT POMEGRANATE

100 spring cycle leaves (from 20-25 trees, at least one leaf from each tree quadrant), 3 to 4-month old from nonfruiting shoots at the middle third of the branch, at a height of 3-5 ft should be collected in June-July from uniform trees of similar age under the same fertilizer program.

OPTIMUM NORMS

NUTREINT UNIT LIMITS
N % 1.5-2.0
P % 0.1-0.2
K % 0.6-0.8
Ca % 0.7-1.5
Mg % 0.3-0.4
Mn ppm 20-70
Zn ppm 40-70
Fe ppm 60-120
Cu ppm 10-20
B ppm 10-20

Reference- Recommended Plant Tissue Nutrient Levels for Some Vegetable, Fruit, and Ornamental Foliage and Flowering Plants-J. A. Silva and R. Uchida, eds. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, ©2000

FRUIT-SAPOTA

10 to 11 month-old index leaves should be sampled for analysis of N, P, Mg and Zn. K, Ca, Fe and Mn reached stable plateau in 4 to 6 month old leaves for K, 4 to 5 month old leaves for Ca, 2 to 5 month old leaves for Fe and 3 to 4 month-old leaves for Mn.

OPTIMUM NORMS

NUTREINT UNIT LIMITS
Nitrogen % 1.25 – 2.38
Phosphorus % 0.05-0.17
Pottassium % 0.36-0.77
Calcium % 1.01-2.04
Magnesium % 0.48-0.92
Sulphur ppm 0.38 -0.82
Iron ppm 18.9 – 147.43
Manganese ppm 18.12-36.97
Zinc ppm 7.89 – 16.57
Copper ppm 3.92- 5.66

Reference- Recommended Plant Tissue Nutrient Levels for Some Vegetable, Fruit, and Ornamental Foliage and Flowering Plants-J. A. Silva and R. Uchida, eds. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, ©2000

FRUIT - GRAPES

Grape Petiole Sampling Grape petiole samples are typically collected in the spring (full bloom) or in late summer (70-100 days after bloom). Petiole samples should be collected annually or every other year to

Advice on Sampling:
  • Sample at the same time of day, consistently and preferably in the morning.
  • Samples should represent vines which are planted on the same soil type and are of the same age, variety and rootstock.
  • Collect petioles systematically throughout the vineyard block to ensure that the entire block is represented.
  • Vines should represent that portion of a block which is maintained under the same cultural practices (ie. fertilizer, training system, irrigation and vigor control practices).
  • If different portions of the vineyard (ie. hills versus low-lying areas) exhibit differences in vine growth, collect separate samples from each of those areas.
  • Select only leaves from healthy shoots that are well exposed to sunlight for sampling (not damaged or diseased).
  • Do not sample vines on the border of the block or near dusty roads.
Procedures: Full Bloom
  • Collect a total of 100 petioles from leaves located opposite the first or second flower cluster from the bottom of the shoot. Petioles are the slender stems that attach the leaf blade to the shoot.
  • Collect no more than 1 or 2 petioles per vine.
  • Procedures: 70 to 100 Days After Bloom
  • Follow above procedures except collect 100 petioles from the youngest fully expanded leaves (usually located 5 to 7 leaves back from the shoot tip).

* If the vines have been treated with a foliar fertilizer or with phosphorus acid for downy mildew, rinse each sample three times with distilled water prior to drying.

OPTIMUM NORMS

Sr. no.

Parameter

Unit

Limits after April pruning

Limits after October pruning

1

Nitrogen

%

0.87 to 1.61

1.32 to  2.21

2

Phosphorus

%

0.29 to  0.65

0.38 to 0.75

3

Pottassium

%

2.00 to 3.02

1.14 to 2.20

4

Calcium

%

0.98 to 1.36

0.74 to 1.14

5

Magnesium

%

0.40 to 0.60

0.50 to 0.80

6

Sulphur

%

0.07 to 2.00

0.14-0.27

7

Sodium

%

0.50 to 2.00

NA

8

Copper

ppm

5 to 20

5 to 20

9

Zinc

ppm

30 to 88

53 to 132

10

Iron

ppm

54 to 80

54 to 80

11

Manganese

ppm

41 to 200

76 to 174

12

Boron

ppm

40 to 60

40 to 60

Reference: Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, water and Fertilisers-Edited By HLS Tandon, FDCO, New Delhi

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